Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology

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Research article

Phytochemical Analysis of Polygonum amplexicaule Essential Oil from Pithoragarh, Uttarakand, India

Kundan Prasad*, Chandan Ram, Pushpa Joshi, Deepak Chandra and Sapna

  • Department of Chemistry, Kumaun University, India
*Address for correspondence: Kundan Prasad, Department of Chemistry, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India, E-mail:
Citation: Ram C, Joshi P, Prasad K, Chandra D, Sapna. Phytochemical Analysis of Polygonum amplexicaule Essential Oil from Pithoragarh, Uttarakand,India. J Pharmaceu Pharmacol. 2018; 6(1): 4.
Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology | ISSN: 2327-204X | Volume: 6, Issue: 1
Submission: 30 July, 2018| Accepted: 03 September, 2018 | Published: 12 September, 2018
Copyright: © 2018 Ram C , et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Geraniol; β-Linalool; Essential oil; GC-MS


Introduction: Polygonum amplexicaule (Polygonaceae) is an herbal drug used to treat fractures, rheumatism, osteoporosis, muscle injuries and pain. It has also been reported to be effective to treat atherosclerosis and its antibiotic and antivirus effects. Methods: The plant Polygonum amplexicaule including leaves, stem, and flowers were extracted by hydro distillation method for 6 hours using Clevenger apparatus. Results: Total fifty one compounds were identified constituting 96.09% of the total oil. The main compounds was Geraniol (19.91%), β-Linalool (19.63), Citronellol (16.22%), 2-Methyl-6-hepten-1-ol (7.77%), Heptan-2-ol (5.66).
Conclusion: The results data obtained in the present study suggest that an essential oil and whole plant possesses strong medicinal activities can be utilized for treatment of diseases.


Poorly water-soluble drug; Controlled release; Porous Calcium silicate; PVP K-90; Solid dispersion; Nifedipine


Polygonum is a medicinal large ordered by Estimated Frequency genus of Polygonaceae, it falls into about 300 species widely distributed around the world. The genus Polygonum contains many medicinal plants, such as Polygonum multiflorum, Polygonum cuspidatum, Polygonum bistorta, Polygonum aviculare, Polygonum tinctorium and Polygonum amplexicaule etc [1]. Additionally, many chemical substance grammatical constituent have been identified such as flavonoids, anthraquinones, stilbenes, glycolipids and terpenes [2]. Polygonum amplexicaule (Polygonaceae) is herbal drug used to treat fractures, rheumatism, osteoporosis, muscle injuries and pain. It has also been reported to be effective to treat atherosclerosis, antibiotic and antivirus effects were also examined with positive results. Leaves are used in dysentery and wounds. Roots are employed in treating cough and dysentery. Whole plant is believed to cause abortion, malignant diseases including Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC), but the scientific basis underlying its anti-HCC activity remains poorly understood [3,4].
Essential oil is a mixture of volatile and natural kernel, identified and characterized by the strong odor, produced by aromatic plant as secondary metabolite. Their metabolites have a wide range of applications and have been commercially important to the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. The composition of active rationale in herb has been the subject of many research studies. They are responsible for the wide aroma and therapeutic effects [5]. The curative efficiency of herbaceous plant depends on their quality, time of harvest, drying and storage procedure and on the climatic condition [5]. Liver equipment casualties are mainly caused by toxic chemicals, alcohol, infections and autoimmune disorders. Polygonum amplexicaule is appendage of the genus Polygonum having high antioxidant contents and it has traditional medicinal attributes in treatment of many complaint particularly liver damage.
The current study is aimed at characterizing the chemical component of the essential oil of Polygonum amplexicaule aril part. Therefore, we report for the first time the separation and identification of the components of areal part essential oils with the aid of GC, GCMS and other spectroscopic techniques.

Materials and Methods

Plant material

The leaves of Polygonum amplexicaule was collected in the month of September 2017 from Kalamuni (Munsyari) near Pithoragarh, India in the Kumaon Himalayas. The plant was first identified in the Department of Botany, Kumaun University, Nainital. The plant was authenticated by Botanical Survey of India (BSI) and identification no. was 114846. The collected plant material was first washed with cold water to remove the soil particles and then shade dried. The dried material was finely powdered in the grinding machine and weighed in an electrical balance.


Petroleum ether, Hexane and anhydrous sodium sulphate and other chemicals and reagents used in this study was purchased Merck Chemical Co. Mumbai, India.

Isolation of essential oil

The plant Polygonum amplexicaule including leaves, stem, and flowers extracted by hydro-distillation method for 6 hours using clevenger apparatus. The oil was dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and stored at room temperature in a sealed vial until analysis was performed. The percentage oil yield was calculated based on the dry weight of the plant. The oil yield was (0.10%).

GC and GC/MS analyses and identification

Essential oil analysis was performed by GC-MS and GC-FID on a Shimadzu QP-2010 instrument, equipped with FID, in the same conditions. The percentage composition of the oil sample was computed from the GC peak areas without using correction for response factors. The oil was analyzed using a Shimadzu GC/MS Model QP 2010 Plus, equipped with Rtx-5MS (30 m × 0.25 mm; 0.25mm film thickness) fused silica capillary column. Helium (99.999%)was used as a carrier gas adjusted to 1.21 ml/min at 69.0 K Pa, splitless injection of 1 μ mL, of a hexane solution injector and interfacetemperature was 270 °C, oven temperature programmed was 50-280 °C at 3 °C/min. Mass spectra was recorded at 70 eV. Ion sourcetemperature was 230 °C.
The identification of the chemical constituents was assigned onthe basis of comparison of their retention indices and mass spectrawith those given in the literature [5]. Retention Indices (RI) weredetermined with reference to a homologous series of normal Alkanes,by using the following formula [6].
equation 1
t1R- The net retention time (tR-t0)
t0 - The retention time of solvent (dead time)
tR - The retention time of the compound
CN - Number of carbons in longer chain of Alkane
Cn - Number of carbons in shorter chain of Alkane
n - Is the number of carbon atoms in the smaller Alkane
N - Is the number of carbon atoms in the larger Alkane


The GC and GC-MS analyses of essential oil of Polygonum amplexicaule resulted in the identification of fifty one compounds Table 1. The oil yield was (0.10%) by raw material weight. Both, the major as well as minor constituents were identified by their retention indices and comparison of their mass spectra. Total fiftyone (51) compounds were identified constituting 96.09% of the total oil. The main compounds was Geraniol (19.91%), β-Linalool (19.63), Citronellol (16.22%), 2-Methyl-6-hepten-1-ol (7.77%), Heptan-2-ol (5.66%), (-)-alpha-Terpineol (4.36%) and (E,E)-α-Farnesene (2.99%). The main minor compounds was β-Pinene (0.06%), Dehydro-β-ionone (0.06%), Bois de Rose oxide (0.07%), Cis-ocimene (0.07%), trans,trans-2,4-Heptadienal (0.08%), α-Terpinolen (0.11%) and 2-Undecen-1-al (0.11%). The presence of Geraniol (19.91%), β-Linalool (19.63), Citronellol (16.22% show good source of natural these terpenoids. Geraniol has been suggested to represent a new class of chemoprevention agents for cancer. Other biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and some vascular effects have also been investigated [7].Geraniol has antibacterial, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, in vivo and in vitro anticancer against in leukemia, hepatoma, melanoma and pancreatic cancer cell lines, and activity on lipid metabolisms and Mevelonate metabolisms. In this review, article highlights the important pharmacological activities of plant essential oil geraniol [8].
Table 1: Essential oil composition of Polygonum amplexicaule.
a=Retention Index (RI), b=MS (GC-MS)
Many reports have described the racemate form of linalool monoterpene and its effect on the brain neurotransmitters glutamic acid, -y-aminobutyric acid (GASA), acetylcholine and dopamine. Moreover, linalool has been reported to exhibit a local anesthetic activity, related to its effects on the nicotinic receptor-ion channel, and to be effective against several bacteria and fungi [9,10].
The essential oil and antioxidant phytochemical from Polygonum amplexicaule showed a qualitative and quantitative make-up of constituents. Clinically, this herb can be a good source of herbal medicine for the treatment of diseases indigenously. The study will also help to generate a database of species which can be exploited scientifically and judiciously in the future by local people and so that ecological balance is maintained. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the essential oil of Polygonum amplexicaule possesses medicinally active compounds. This is the first report on the plants Polygonum amplexicaule at high altitudes of Munsyari, Kumaon Himalayas.


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